Modelling 2, Task 2



1st attempt of the spear tip. the spear tip has 4 mirroring axis. I decided to work with 1 quarter, the top half of the spear tip. Box modelling seemed a good technique to start with. even though the shape of the spear tip is organic in shape, I saw the base shape as a cube. I started with a cube, moving vertices to the dimensions of edges in the Y and X direction, and extruded where I thought necessary. I then extruded in the Z direction from side view.



Once I was happy with the shape, I mirrored the geometry in the -x and z axis, combined and merged vertices. I deleted the edge loops that connected the 4 shells, that ran in the Y axis. This reduced the edges, in preparation for the cylindrical half. Cylindrical shapes do not need many divisions running in the Y axis to keep their shape. They can be made with as little as 8 divisions. I believe all other edges were needed to keep the shapes created.






After reducing the unnecessary edges from the top half of the spear tip, I counted the edges that would I would need to create the bottom cylindrical half. I counted 26, there fore used a subdivision of 26 to create polygon primitives. The shapes I saw were the outer faces of a Taurus, the inner faces of a Taurus. I used a Taurus to mimic theses shapes as well as extrude for the lip of the stacked 2 stacked Taurus shapes. I combined and merged the vertices for the finished spear tip.







Second attempt of the spear tip.

speartip7There were a lot of  observational details, that I had missed during the first build. The transitional detail,  how one shape would morph into another shape, curved and soft turns. The negative circular shapes also needed closer attention.

Breaking the top half into 4 smaller shapes forced me to consider edge flow and subtle transitions  for each shape. Each shape was considered separately.


speartip8 The first shape that was created was a reverse leaf shape. a radial edge flow expanded out from the spherical negative space. This helped with the transition of the lip, producing a parallel run of faces. A sphere was used as template to line up with the vertices.

I attempted to create this combining the faces of 3 spheres. I also tried using a bend deformer and tried to create the shape using curves. Theses attempts were unsucessful.

The second shape was made separately to the first. The edge flow ran from the tip of the leaf to the centre of the spear tip following the extruded centre line. Parallel faces followed this edge flow. this was to allow a soft,  rounded groove to the extruded centre line, without twisting and deforming the faces attached.


The third piece, edge flow was also considered separately. radial edges expand out from the negative spherical shape, in an opposite direction to the first shape. This edge flow gave the two parallel extrusions a line of faces to transition to.

The 4th piece differed from the first 3 pieces. It was more geometric, simular shape to a triangle, however it had a domed shape, starting from the outer extrusion to the centre. This dome shape was created with the edges in Y axis. Edge reduction was also needed at the top of the tip, where the edges converged. Retaining edge loop was inserted for the soft transition of the extruded lip, into the sloped shelf.



I combined the 4 shapes, not all vertices matched up. I used multi-cut to add loops. Transiting edges were checked in all axis. Once I was happy with the shape I mirrored the geometry in the -x and z axis, combined and merged vertices. I counted the edges that would I would need to create the bottom cylindrical half. I used a Taurus to mimic theses shapes of the bottom half, as in the first example. The end result, represented in images below.

Overall the shapes created in the second attempt look more successful and match the shape of the spear tip closer than the 1st box model version.

Modelling 2, Task 1



The bishop was designed to be a hard smooth model. The model had 6 cylindric indentations, with that in mind I used 12 divisions in the y axis for all primitive shapes.

The bishop has 4 major shape changes, which I will call the base/foot, the neck, the head and the cylindrical indentations.


To construct the main shape of the bishop I firstly experimented with combining primitives. A cylinder was created for the base, the inside shape of a taurus for the neck, the outer bottom half of a taurus, a cone, and the top half of a sphere for the point of the bishop. The normals for the taurus neck were flipped. I bevelled the initial boarder edge of the neck to simulate the sharp turn between the foot and neck and the neck and head of the bishop. These shapes were combined and merged to make the larger form of the bishop.


For the cylindrical indentations, cylinders were used as a template. the bottom of the indentation were larger than the top and scaled, following the measurements taken. The cylinder was rotated from a centre pivot to intersect the head of the bishop. Boolean, (difference) was used to cut into the head and form the shape.  I redirected the edges that were needed to eliminate n-gons and tri’s using edge slide keeping the shape as a priority.

bishop-boolean   boolean

Other processes I had tried was using a curve following the ouster edge of the overall shape and using the revolve function. For the cylindrical indentations I had extruded several faces inward.


The process of building the overall shape with primitives, was successful. However, the cylindrical indentations had lost their shape. I tried several attempts in the polish to keep the shape of the cylindric indentations.

Instead of edge reduction, I added extra edge loops to hold the shape. I also added extra edge loops around the bevel, to restrict the shape from pulling.


Visual Arts (Part 3)

In this blog I will discuss developing gesture to prevent the figure from becoming static. “Draw what the body is doing, not just the body” (Force, Mattesi). Several techniques were prioritised to visualize the movement of the figure. Discovering the s and c curves, looking for rhythm, and determining the weight bearing leg, needed to be established as the foundation of the drawing.

Life Drawing, 06/05/2015 2mins, Graphite on Butches Paper

I learnt to imagine the structure below without blocking in the initial proportions and visualize the gesture of the pose. “Feeling the flow and letting the rhythm drive the eye through the figure” (Drawing Demo, Vilppu). A balance of rhythmic curves assisted in the perceived movement, flowing from one mass to connecting another. “Curved lines are more forceful than straights since they clearly show us directional and applied forces.” (Force, Mattesi)

Life Drawing, 06/05/2015 4mins, Graphite on Butches Paper

When drawing the figure it is important to feel the weight of the body and a sense of how the body moves. Directional force applies onto the next directional force. (Force, Mattesi) Compositionally I believe these drawing succeeded, using the rule of thirds and a triangular arrangement. However several issues have not been resolved. The leg resting on the lower leg does not depict the force or weight of the limb. If I were to exaggerate the movement of the figure that curves over the hipbone, this would emphasize the core force.

Drawing is presenting ideas through line. Gesture, rhythm, force, and mass were explored throughout this process. These ideas could continuously be approved upon through the balance of motivation, thought and practice.


Glen Vilppu , Drawing Demo, 2013, Web, (youtube),‪

Mike Mattesi, 2006, Force: Dynamic life drawing for animators, 2nd edn, Focal Press, Burlington, MA. (PDF Copy),

Visual Arts (Part 2)

In this blog I will discuss Life Drawing and the importance of anatomy research. I have previous training, however the priority of my thought process was challenged to accommodate gesture as a primary concern. To improve gesture drawing, knowledge of anatomy and practice of short drawing was required. In the 1-5 minute poses, there is limited time to correct mistakes, so instinctively being aware of anatomy and building muscle memory was vital. “We can know a prior of things only what we ourselves put into them”(The Blackwell companion to philosophy, Kant)

Research Homework, Anatomy 28/03/2015, Graphite on Paper

Researching anatomy was fundamental to improving in Life Drawing. It provided knowledge of the underlying structure of human form. I used several references Including Michael Hampton, George Bridgman and Uldis Kondrat to examine the human form. Uldis Kondrat’s book focuses on the structure of the form. I explored the planes of individual muscle masses and cross sections to discover what constructs the structure of the human body.

Life Drawing, 22/04/2015 4mins, Graphite on Butches Paper

Bridgman discusses the anatomy to create human forms without compromising on the core mass. “Masses of the head, chest and Pelvis are unchanging” (Bridgman’s complete guide to drawing from life, Bridgeman). In the above drawing, I blocked out form using marks to find the proportions of the body. At this stage my knowledge of anatomy was minimal, and I did not recognize the core masses. If I were to recreate this drawing, I would describe the muscles wrapping around the core masses.

Drawing is a conceptual idea, abstracting from the subject to depict a method of note taking for the artist, and visually communicating the ideas to its audience.


George Bridgman, 2009, Bridgman’s complete guide to drawing from life, Sterling, NY, (PDF copy),

David Bell, on Immanuel Kant, 2002, The Blackwell companion to philosophy, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK.

Uldis Kondrats, 2014, Anatomy for sculptors, Exonicus LLC, US, (Image Reference for anatomy drawings)

Michael Hampton, Figure Drawing.Info (Web), (Image Reference for anatomy drawings)

Introduction to: Visual Arts for Animation.

During this 3 part blog, I will discuss my philosophy on drawing and its practice. Referring to artists that have influenced my journey as well as critiquing my work based on what I have learnt.

My endeavor is to interpret three-dimensional form and space through the visual medium of drawing. It is the ability to translate the subject and simplify through line and tone, simulating the world around us. Drawing is created through the balance of motivation, thought and practice.

In this blog I will discuss the exercise of creating texture and tone with pen. My objective was to create texture and a range of values. An excerpt “Creating Textures in Pen and Ink with Watercolour” (Nice) was used as a reference. Using the techniques of cross-hatching, stippling and scribble to mimic individual textures, suitable to the subject.

Still Life, 04/03/2015, Pen on Paper
Still Life, 04/03/2015, Pen on Paper

The texture was resolved by using a combination of techniques, which also created visual interest. The direction of the marks and quantity was also considered, ensuring the volume was not compromised. To expand on this idea, the contour of the form followed the direction or turn of the plane. In addition to, rendering marks to correspond to the tonal gradation of light and shadows.

Still Life, zucchini and lemons 06/03/2015, Pen on Paper

The purpose of tone is to visually depict objects on a two dimensional surface, and reinforce three dimensions. It suggests the core shadow, direct light, reflective light, and cast shadow. (How to Draw The Figure With Line and Tone, Gnass) In hindsight I would not have formed the linear silhouette but allowed the tone to suggest the edges of the subject. Our mind infers logic to object-related elements.

This theory can also be applied to an imagined light source, ensuring it stays consistent. “You cant light an object, unless you understand the volume of an object”. (How to Draw The Figure With Line and Tone, Gnass)


Claudia Nice, Creating Textures in Pen and Ink with Watercolour, 1995, North Light Books, Cincinnati, OH, (Excerpt on Pen & Ink techniques)

Karl Gnass, How to Draw The Figure With Line and Tone, 2014, Web (youtube),

Nosferatu 1922, King Kong 1933, Godzilla 1956, and The Creature from the Black Lagoon 1956, on Genre (Monster Horror)

Classic Monster Horror Nosferatu 1922


Director: F.W. Murnau

Writers: Henrik Galeen (screen play),

Bram Stoker (based on the novel: “Dracula”)

Graf Orlok the Vampyre – Max Schreck

Hutter the goul – Greta Schröder

Ellen, seine FrauRuth Landshoff

Harding, ein Reeder – Georg H. Schnell

-Professor Sievers, der Stadtarzt – Gustav Botz

King Kong 1933


Directors: Merian C. Cooper & Ernest B. Schoedsack

James Ashmore Creelman & Ruth Rose (screen play)

Merian C. Cooper & Edgar Wallace (from an idea conceived by)

Robert Armstrong – Carl Denham

Bruce Cabot – John Driscoll

Fay Wray – Ann Darrow

Capt. Englehorn – Frank Reicher

Godzilla 1956


Director: Ishirô Honda

Writers: Takeo Murata, Ishirô Honda

Hideto Ogata – Akira Takarada

Emiko Yamane – Momoko Kôchi

Daisuke Serizawa-hakase – Akihiko Hirata

Kyohei Yamane-hakase – Takashi Shimura

-Gojira – Jiro Suzuki, Katsumi Tezuka, Haruo Nakajima, Ryosaku Takasugi

The Creature from the Black Lagoon, 1956


Director: Jack Arnold

Writers: Harry Essex (screenplay)

Arthur A. Ross (screenplay)

Richard Carlson as David Reed

Kay Lawrence – Julie Adams

Mark Williams – Richard Denning

The Gill Man (in water) – Ricou Browning

The Gill Man (on land) – Ben Chapman

Genre helps us understand the relationship of film, by comparing and sorting the similarities and differences. “Genre may be defined as patterns, forms style structures which transcend individual films” (Attaman). In this Blog I will discuss Monster Horror and its influential genres and its evolution, including German Expressionism, Science Fiction and Kaijū.


Monster Horror is an ideological topic that deals with our most basic instincts of fear and survival. German Expressionism was a style of cinema that emphasized expression beginning before WW1. (Brief History of Horror) Nosferatu, 1922 was a film based on Bram Stokers Dracula. The immortal vampire incited created fear in its audiences killing numerous victims through exsanguination. The lurking shadows of Nosferatu were used as screen irony to create fear in its audiences.

King Kong 1933 was an influential film not only due to its monster but its advances in stop motion and various other film effects. “Film theorist have traditionally classified films like King Kong as belonging to horror, monster or science fiction…” (Mediating Nature) the defining factor that categorizes the various themes and tropes of monster horror is the fear it evokes. “A canoe full of natives from this island was blown out to sea. When the barque picked them up, there was only one alive.” (King Kong, Denham)


Godzilla, 1954 was a reaction to the suffering of a nuclear attack of WW2. The audience identifies with the theme, inventing a monster to depict the destruction brought upon its people. Kyohei Yamane-hakase: “It’s impossible! Godzilla absorbed massive amounts of atomic radiation and yet it still survived.” (Godzilla, Yamane-hakase) Throughout the film Tokyo was oppressed by violent and destructive attacks by Godzilla. The film was a success and influenced a number of sequels, hence inspiring its own genre Kaiji. “Kaijū is a Japanese word that literally translates to monster”. (Gutenberg)


“With Horror Films Falling out of fashion in the 50s, however the only solution was to rebaptize all these films according to the new science fiction fad” (Film/Genre, Attaman)

Genre is a class or category of artistic endeavor, therefore whatever label we assign, it can surpass it by its own properties. In The Creature from the Black Lagoon, 1954 fear is evoked by the appearance of gill mans web hand. It telegraphed a threat or warning, preparing the audience for the monsters emergence.

The films can transcend its initial label by prime common factors and themes. Monster Horror aims to create tension, terror and fright in its audiences. The existence of a supernatural monster, that creates fear, death and destruction and the protagonists journey of survival, identifies the borders of Monster Horror.


Film/Genre, Rick Altman, London 1999 BFI Publishing.

Mediating Nature, Nils Lindahl Elliot, 2006, Publisher: Routledge, UK

Filmmakeriq, (Web),

Gutenberg, (Web),

IMDB: Nosveratu –

IMDB: Creature from the Black Lagoon –

IMDB: Godzilla –

IMDB: King Kong –

Nosferatu, 1922, F.W. Murnau, DVD, Kino Lorber films, DE

King Kong, 1933, Merian C. Cooper & Ernest B. Schoedsack, DVD, Warner Bros, US

Godzilla, 1954, Ishirô Honda, DVD, Vivendi Entertainment, JP

The Creature from the black lagoon, 1954, Jack Arnold, DVD, Universal Studios, US


Nosferatu Poster:

King Kong Poster:

Godzilla Poster:

The Creature from the Black lagoon:


King Kong:


The Creature from the black lagoon: